Noninvasive optical imaging in turbid media with microscopic resolution has multiple promising applications. For instance, such imaging can be used to visualize breast tumors to early detect and characterize any disorders and thus significantly increase the cure rate (because X-ray mammography cannot identify tumors at their early stage of development).
Two-photon excitation fluorescence imaging of the back of the eye allows visualization of subcellular structures in the living animal eye. This method is helpful for investigating mechanisms of retinal diseases and development of ophthalmic therapies. However, anterior optics of the animal eye poorly transmit light at desired wavelengths.